In her latest “Decoded” video, Franchesca Ramsey breaks down the science behind empirical observations, stereotypes and bias—and how they impact people of color.

“Stereotypes are cognitive shortcuts,” she says. “Your brain wants to make an immediate judgment about somebody based on their gender, race or age. And you might think this is harmless, but when you apply a stereotype behind that impulse, you have bias.”

The full—illuminating—video is above.