It ought not come as a surprise by now. Institutions with school resource officers–that is, school-based law enforcement personnel–report student arrests for disorderly conduct at nearly five times the rate of schools without similar personnel on campus, according to an infographic released by Boston University. The graphic examines the unequal toll that zero-tolerance policies and discipline have on black and Latino students, and the long chain of consequences that harsh discipline can trigger for young people–including lockup, expensive court-related fees and fines, and a cycle of arrest and jail time. The takeaway is that harsh discipline not only doesn’t benefit its targeted students, it also sets them on a path that’s dangerous and difficult to correct.