Is President Obama a secret Muslim? Is Sharia law the radical scourge that's threatening the very fabric of U.S. democracy? Contrary to the saying, a lie repeated often enough won't make it true. But that doesn't mean anti-Muslim activists, armed with millions of dollars of foundation support, won't stop trying.
It turns out a handful of seven donors have given nearly $43 million over the last decade to fund a close network of right-wing intellectuals and scholars who've concocted and fanned Islamophobic hysteria to push an anti-Muslim political agenda.
According to "Fear Inc.," a new report released by the Center for American Progress, those millions have gone to a coordinated network of anti-Muslim thought leaders: Frank Gaffney at the Center for Security Policy; David Yerushalmi at the Society of Americans for National Existence; Daniel Pipes at the Middle East Forum; Robert Spencer at Jihad Watch and Stop Islamization of America and Steven Emerson of the Investigative Project on Terrorism.
This network, with millions of dollars behind it, has moved an agenda that seeks to pit Islam against the West, that imagines Muslims as untrustworthy and dangerous, that has painted Muslims as a looming threat who are out to undermine American democracy and national security. And with the help of activists, right-wing bloggers and a platform from a more than obliging cable news system, these fringe ideas have become more and more mainstream.
"There is a coordinated, strategic, deliberate, interconnected agenda here, which has very detrimental effects on fellow Americans and our communities and which really poisons the well of civil discourse," says Wajahat Ali, the lead author of the CAP report.
"We're living in a post-9/11 environment so what the network does is very cynically exploits fear, hysteria and misinformation and ignorance for the sake of profit, and for the sake of pushing an anti-Muslim agenda under the guise of allegedly combating radical Islam and protecting our national security," Ali said.
It's in this post-9/11 climate that the most absurd statements have become commonplace in the mainstream political discourse.
"Arabic is not just another language like French or Italian, it is the spearhead of an ideological project that is deeply opposed to the United States," Pam Geller wrote in February on her right-wing blog Atlas Shrugs. She is closely connected with David Horowitz, whose anti-Muslim group the David Horowitz Freedom Center has raked in $8.3 million in the last decade. Or, in the words of Bridgitte Gabriel: "[Muslims and Arabs] have no soul. They are dead set on killing and destruction."
It's the kind of extremist thought leadership that has paved the way for Rep. Peter King's congressional hearings on the supposed Islamic radicalization of the country. They're the authors whose anti-Muslim rants were cited dozens of times in the Oslo, Norway shooter Behring Breivik's manifesto. These are the people who've singlehandedly brought anti-Sharia laws to over a dozen statehouses. They're the machine that's given rise to the idea that Obama might secretly be Muslim, and that were that true, it'd somehow be a terrible offense.
Ali says that the success of this messaging rests in part on the fact that 60 percent of Americans claim not to know any Muslim person, and so people rely for on mainstream media and the words of political leaders for information.
The anti-Muslim rhetoric firing across the airwaves and in congressional hearings has real-life impacts, too. It's provided the political cover for a whole slew of policies that have targeted Muslim, Arab, Middle Eastern and South Asian communities. An AP investigation published last week uncovered a years long domestic surveillance program that the NYPD had undertaken to gather information on Muslim communities. The invasive surveillance measures meant that New York police had broad powers to monitor, harass and racially profile New York Muslims.
But the manufactured threat has been overblown, experts say. A 2010 study from Duke University found that the imagined threat of Muslim fundamentalists committing acts of terrorism was exaggerated. The study tracked 139 known radicalized Muslim-Americans who had attempted to carry out acts of terrorism or had been prosecuted in connection with suspected acts of terrorism--they are just a handful of the nation's 2.6 million Muslims.*
"Muslim-American organizations and the vast majority of individuals that we interviewed firmly reject the radical extremist ideology that justifies the use of violence to achieve political ends," David Schanzer, an associate professor at Duke and the director of the Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security, said in a statement at the report's release.
And this week a new report from the Pew Research Center found that American Muslims are concerned about the exact same things everyone else is: they take national security seriously and are distrustful of extremism in many forms, even as they report being unfairly seen as suspect themselves. American Muslims overwhelmingly have both, Pew reports, "mainstream and moderate" attitudes.
Nevertheless, in the last decade, Muslims, Arabs, Middle Easterners, South Asians and those who've been confused for any of the above, have been the targets of a marked rise in job-related discrimination, hate crimes and biased-based bullying.
"Fear is a two-way street," said Zahra Billoo, the executive director of the Bay Area chapter of the Council on American Islamic Relations, a national Muslim civil rights and advocacy group. "It's created fear within the community too."
Billoo said that since September 11, it's not uncommon for American Muslims to be confronted by anti-Muslim incidents in their daily life, the the utter frequency of which have begun to normalize Islamophobic rhetoric in even her community members' eyes.
"Some sort of hate is manifested but it doesn't rise to the level of a hate crime," Billoo explained, "where someone calls me a terrorist, or someone looks at me funny, or someone yells something from their car at me."
"It's happened for so long that many people have taken it in as their reality and stopped complaining when it's not okay, whether it's happening to them or anyone else."
Ali urged people to put the current debates within a historical context. "What's happening right now is simply a remake. The characters in the past were Jews, Irish Catholics, and Japanese Americans," Ali said. "And the scapegoating of those minority communities represents in hindsight the worst of America."
Ali said he hoped the report would give these funders an opportunity to assess their political priorities and distance themselves from the obvious fearmongering that they've funded. He said that the U.S. needs to learn from its past mistakes and regain its moral compass to bring some moderation back to the national discourse.
"What's inspiring is that America usually does find its way back," Ali said. "Sometimes grudgingly, and sometimes after making mistakes along the way. But we're a resilient nation, eventually we find our way."
* This article has been updated since publication.